Last update : 28.10.2010
Full fuel cycle assessment: TTW energy inputs, emissions, and water impacts
California Energy Commission
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The full fuel cycle is the combination of the WTT and TTW, which is also commonly referred to as a Well-to-Wheels (WTW) analysis. The California Energy Commission (CEC) has performed a WTW emissions analysis for a wide variety of alternative transportation fuels, considering criteria and greenhouse gas pollutants, as well as air toxic contaminants and multimedia impacts. This study determines oxides of nitrogen (NOx), non-methane organic gases (NMOG), air toxics, carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for methanol, diesel, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and electric vehicle operation. Reformulated diesel, biodiesel, and synthetic diesel were also analyzed.
Added on 24 September 2007
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